| Ecological Descriptors
Large eye is greater than snout length. Bright reflective silver, but lacking obvious large scales and narrow caudal peduncle (cf herring spp). Scutes only on thee rear of lateral line. Deeply forked tail.
Occurs in large inshore schools, usually in shallow waters. It also occurs over shallow reefs or in turbid water, however can be found at depths down to 170m (550ft). Maximum size is to 27 cm. The species feeds mostly at night on large planktonic animals; juveniles feed mostly on crustaceans (euphasiids, decapods) and adults are active predators of fish larvae and early juveniles. Its large eyes could be an adaptation to night predation.
Pelagic spawner thats eggs hatch into pelagic larvae. Size at maturity is <20 cm. Females spawn every three days. Mean batch fecundities are ~92,000. Few survive longer than one year (~21cm). Sex ratio remained constant month to month and sexual maturity is attained at 21.5 cm FL. Spawning periods are potentially staggered from April to November, with a peak from September to November. Some studies indicate that the spawning period for this species extends over a period of 6-7 months (between March and September). Its life cycle is rapid and short.